Istorija India Pale Ale - IPA piva

25 Nov 2019

U Engleskoj se pivo vjekovima proizvodilo u krčmama, po imanjima i manastirima i pilo se tamo gdje se i proizvodilo. Tek u osamnaestom vijeku počelo se sa proizvodnjom u većim manufakturama i fabrikama za distribuciju i prodaju. Recepti piva tada nisu bili jasno definisani, preovladavala su smeđa ili piva boje ćilibara, sa ili bez hmelja. Slad je u to vrijeme pravljen na uglju pa su piva imala ukus dima, bila tamne boje i morala mesecima pa čak i godinama da odleže da bi mogla da se piju.
Otkriće koksa za vrijeme industrijske revolucije zamijenilo je ugalj kao gorivo za dobijanje slada i omogućio nastanak svijetlog slada. Sa svijetlim sladom u Londonu je nastala nova vrsta piva “Pale ale”. Ovo pivo nije imalo tešku aromu dima i preprženog slada, pa su se pivari više okrenuli gorčini i aromi hmelja. U to vrijeme počelo je i suvo hmeljenje, metod dodavanja hmelja u gotovo pivo, koje daje jaku aromu. Tadašnji monopolisti u Engleskoj nisu dozvoljavali da se u kolonijama pravi nijedan ozbiljniji proizvod, te su se sve vrste engleskog piva relativno uspješno transportovale u kolonije. Osvježavajući i lakši Pale Ale kuvan od svijetlog slada, prijatno gorak, filtriran kroz tkaninu, bio je popularan među činovnicima i vojnicima u Indiji. Za izvoz ovog piva ekskluzivan ugovor imao je izvjesni Hodgson, East India Company iz Londona. Početkom devetnaestog vijeka Hodgson je počeo da izvozi nekvalitetno i nerijetko pokvareno pivo, što su odmah iskoristili preduzimljivi pivari iz mjesta Burton. Pivo koje su pivari iz Burtona pravili za izvoz, prodavao se i u Engleskoj pod imenom “Indian Pale Ale”. Dodata je riječ Indian jer je ta vrsta piva postala izuzetno popularna među činovnicima i vojnicima u Indiji. Tako je došlo do naziva IPA piva koje je bilo omiljena vrsta sve do dolaska industrijske proizvodnje. Prvi svjetski rat i nestašica žitarica uništili su englesku industriju piva koja je od tog vremena poznata kao proizvođač vodenih i bezukusnih piva, a IPA pada u zaborav.

U Americi šezdesetih i sedamdesetih godina dominirala su svijetla piva bez boje, mirisa i ukusa. Dva Amerikanca njemačkog porijekla stupaju na scenu kao pioniri craft pivarstva. Fritz Maytac kupio je propalu pivaru Anchor u San Francisku i krenuo u obnovu proizodnje. Pošto su ga zanimali stari engleski recepti 1975. godine je počeo da pravi IPA sličan receptu iz Burtona, ali je dodao američki hmelj, tada eksperimentalna i nova sorta, i tako dobio svijetao i žut, umjereno gorak sa aromom citrusa i cvijeća prvo američko IPA pivo, Liberty ale.
Desetak godina kasnije Kent Grossman iz Kalifornije otvorio je pivaru Sierra Nevada. I on se bavio proučavanjem engleskih recepata te je 1981. godine skuvao bogat IPA. Crvenkast od karamelisanih sladova bogat i gorak od američkog hmelja Celebration ale je pivo po kome se dalje oblikuje američko IPA pivo.
Anchor i Sierra Nevada bili su uzori zanatskim pivarama u Americi koji su odbacili nekvalitetnu industrijsku proizvodnju i okrenuli se proizvodnji interesantnih vrsta piva. Američka IPA-e se brzo proširilo po cijeloj zemlji a najviše u Kaliforniji koja je i danas centralno mesto za ljubitelje IPA.

Imena piva nisu vezana za geografsko porijeklo, pa se ova vrsta sada proizvodi širom svijeta.

Američka IPA vrsta piva najzastupljenija je u zanatskom pivarstvu. To je gorko pivo zlatne do svijetle boje, relativno bistro i umjereno gazirano sa izražajnom aromom američkog hmelja. Pored američke postaju popularne i aromatične sorte hmelja iz Australije i Novog Zelanda. Na zapadnoj obali Amerike ubjedljivo dominira hmelj u pivu, a na istočnoj obali piva su kompleksnija i imaju balans između slada i hmelja.

Engleska IPA vrsta je najbliža originalu iz osamnaestog veka. Pošto je u pitanju tradicionalni recept može se naći i u izradi velikih industrijskih pivara Engleske. To pivo je bistro, svijetlo narandžaste boje izbalansirano između ukusa svijetlih i karamelisanih sladova i tradicionalnih sorti hmelja. Od nedavno, IPA pivo se proizvodi i u našoj Nikšićkoj pivari, reakcije su jako pozitivne te preporučujemo da ga probate, ukoliko već niste.

Izvor: https://www.ugostiteljstvo.com/


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